Epilepsy is a disease of the nervous system of a chronic character. Insufficient treatment or neglected state of the disease contributes to the development of irreversible processes in the psyche of the patient.
For epileptics peculiar slow thinking and block when moving. These disorders often cause irritation, anger, protest. There are sudden changes in mood. Jepilepticheskoe dementia may appear. Seizures of epilepsy occur in different ways. An attack lasting 2-3 minutes comes suddenly. In particularly severe cases, the epileptic status develops, i.e. Seizures come, not stopping, without returning to consciousness.
Seizures can take place without the appearance of cramps. There is a loss of consciousness about 10 minutes. Seizure can last up to a few days without losing consciousness. In this state the patient can leave or go somewhere, and then do not remember anything.
Assistance at the time of epileptic attack
A short-term attack comes with the appearance of a loud sound, which is caused by spasm of the larynx. Man falls. All torsos cover muscle spasms, topples the head, and hands are compressed in elbow joints, brushes are clutched in fists, knee-bent legs are pressed to a belly. The face acquires a pronounced cyanotic color. Jaw is cramped, which is why the patient can eat his tongue or the inside of the cheek. may occur defecation or urination. After about half a minute the convulsive tension gradually passes, rippling all muscles of a body, and from an oral cavity foam flows. Foamy saliva can acquire krovânistyj color if the bite of the tongue or cheeks has occurred. Then gradually the respiratory function is restored, passes lividity, there is a relaxation of muscles and the person plunges into a deep sleep. Most often, patients do not remember what happened during the seizure.
Activities at the time of seizure are reduced to the inadmissibility of injury or suffocation. It is forbidden to move the ward at the moment of seizure. It should sit or lie on any flat plane. It is necessary to loosen or undo clothes on the patient. You should keep your head to protect your head from getting injured. If possible, you need to put a pillow or a soft object under your head. The head should be put on the side to prevent saliva from getting into the respiratory tract. In a corner of an oral cavity it is possible to put a firm object, preliminary wrapping it a cloth. It is not necessary to forcibly try to unclench jaws or stop convulsive convulsions. In the case of interruption of breath for more than 1-2 minutes, bring to the nose of the patient fleece, moistened ammonia alcohol. After the return of consciousness after the attack can not leave the ward one. The seizure may recur or the state will be excited. It is necessary to provide full rest, that the patient has slept. After rest it is necessary to bring the person to fresh air. If seizures come more than 4 times a day, you need to call "emergency". In the diary record the frequency and duration of seizures-it will help the doctor to adjust the treatment. Taking medications during the treatment of epilepsy has specific characteristics. It is absolutely necessary to strict adherence to the schedule of medications. It is forbidden to reduce or increase the dosage, and especially to stop taking medications. Gradual changes can occur strictly under the supervision of the Doctor. These medications need to be taken for years and sometimes for life. The cure against seizures can not be canceled, as a last resort, only change to another.
Safety in the home of a person suffering from epilepsy
The bath should be safe, it is enough to bed non-slip mats and install soft sides. The doors of the bath and the restroom should be opened outside and be without locks. All premises of a dwelling should be lay carpets or palaces. The furniture should have rounded edges. All places with high temperature or open fire should be obscure. It is forbidden to eat spicy food and abundant drink. The acceptance of alcoholic beverages is strictly prohibited. Alcohol can provoke an attack or contribute to the development of irreversible consequences in the psyche. Strict observance of day mode is required. The patient should sleep more than 8 hours. You need to fall asleep and wake up at the same time. Daily outdoor walks are recommended. If the patient is working at the computer, it is necessary to prevent glare on the monitor, and the room should be well lit. It is forbidden to visit wards nightclubs and other places of entertainment where bright flashing lights are used. It is not necessary to watch in the dark TV, and subjects with energetic change of frames it is necessary to watch, having closed one eye. It is impossible to jump from a height, to swim in water colder 23 ° с. It is necessary to accustom the patient to bathe in a shower, instead of a bath. Wash need warm water and avoid cold or hot jets. When the patient stays at home alone, he should not use an open fire, iron or light candles.
Specifics of care for patients with disturbed psyche
Any mental illness is characterized by a violation of behavior. In the patient's consciousness the display of the real world is distorted. It is not uncommon to have delusions, hallucinations, and overstimulation. Such patients should be observed by a psychiatrist.
Hallucinations are one of the symptoms of a mental disorder that is typical of schizophrenia, alcohol psychosis, vascular psychosis or epilepsy. The patient can have auditory hallucinations: he hears, as it seems, absolutely real voices. The patient can talk to himself, as if communicating with the interlocutor, can laugh without any reason. It is difficult for a patient to stop his attention on a conversation or a certain action. He can even refuse food for reasons incomprehensible to a healthy person.
Delusional ideas are reasoning or mental opinions that have nothing to do with the real state of things, but the patient cannot be persuaded. The patient may have unfounded aggression. Thoughts about persecution, personal superiority, fears about their own life or the lives of relatives can develop. The actions which supposedly should protect the patient are peculiar: curtain of windows, closing of doors, sense of alarm. The patient may attempt to send a letter to law enforcement or other authorities.
Psychomotor agitation can be manifested in superfluous vanity, rambling speech, hostility, attempts of suicide or disappearance. This condition is not safe for the patient and his environment, so it is necessary to call "emergency psychiatric care". Before her arrival, you need to isolate the ward. You can try to calm the patient. If you are strong enough, you can approach the patient on the side and plant it, then cover his hands with his palms. Do not lose your vigilance, even if the patient outwardly calmed down.
In the process of aggravating the disease, a person loses interest in the surrounding life, a sense of compassion, becomes closed. He stops to monitor himself and does not respect personal hygiene, stops to maintain home comfort. Mentally unhealthy patient is heavily tolerating any change in the habitual lifestyle. You will have to create a personal hygiene, eating and certain occupations for the ward. The patient should have at hand all his habitual subjects. It is not recommended to do in the house permutation. If necessary changes, it is necessary to implement gradually. The patient's behavior should be carefully monitored. In any given situation it is necessary to maintain composure and full peace of mind. During the conversation with the patient it is necessary to look it directly in the eyes. Show your desire to understand it. It is necessary to try to establish contact with the ward. Joint walks in the open air or lessons can help. It is not necessary to insist on communication if the patient wishes to be alone or simply to be silent. At the same time no need to ignore his attempts to communicate with you. It is necessary to support the conversation on the topics of interest to the patient. Tell him about events that occur in reality so that he does not lose touch with the outside world. Insist that he read newspapers and magazines, ask about the time and day of the week. Try to praise the ward for the slightest success. Encourage his desire to communicate with other people. You should never enter into a dispute with a patient or require him to explain his thoughts.
Strictly observe the schedule of taking medications prescribed by your doctor. Contain medications should be in the inaccessible to the sick place. Taking these drugs is not compatible with alcohol!
Prevention of aggravation of epileptic seizures:
Taking medications is strictly on schedule. Only the doctor can cancel the drug.
Protect your ward from any psychological turmoil. It is impossible to carry the patient to the places unknown to him or other climatic regime.
Physical overload of the patient is not permissible. Overheating is contraindicated in the sun or in the sauna.
It is necessary to use cold prevention.
Watch the patient's behavior closely. Any changes may indicate an approaching aggravation. It can be a restless sleep, lack of appetite, increased irritation, anxiety, the emergence of unusual utterances, other perception of habitual things, difficulty performing daily tasks, refusal to eat or medicine. You should inform your doctor about everything. It is necessary to continue to communicate with the ward at ease, to protect it from any disturbances.
For the ease of perceiving the sick of his own home, it is necessary to equip the room with things familiar to him. For example, in a room to expose photos, in a bathroom, a toilet and in a kitchen to hang up thematic pictures. If the patient has a habit of opening the gas, it is necessary to install a valve on the gas pipe, the head of which is easily removed. Leaving the kitchen, you need to cover the gas, and the head to take with him.
If the patient manifests a pronounced overstimulation or expresses thoughts about suicide, it is forbidden to leave one. You should watch him closely. Hide sharp objects, close access to Windows, dangerous for life and health materials must be securely hidden. After taking medications, you need to check the mouth cavity to eliminate concealment pills. In the House should get rid of internal locks to prevent the closure of the patient. You can never raise a voice on a ward or challenge his thoughts. If there is a need to leave the patient on the street, you need to put in your pocket a note with information about this person.